In the last post we talked about how everything we have been taught regarding the residential finance process isn’t working. Over the next five weeks we will be talking about the 5 Phases to achieve Financial Success.
The IRS and Congress have eliminated the limits on how much you can earn and how much you can have in retirement accounts before you can convert.
Little does anyone know, you can convert any amount of money to a ROTH IRA.
The reasoning behind this idea is to convert the money now. Pay taxes on it now. Let the account increase in value and withdraw the money later on without having to pay taxes on it.
What is a Roth IRA?
If you are not familiar with a Roth IRA, it is a retirement account where you invest after-tax dollars, and withdraw the funds tax-free. In other words, you invest your money in the retirement account after you have paid taxes on it. Being that you paid taxes on the money before you invested it, you do not have to pay taxes when you withdraw the funds from the Roth IRA.
This chart illustrates the difference between a Roth IRA and a Traditional IRA:
|Traditional IRA||Roth IRA|
|Invest money before you pay taxes on it||Invest money after you pay taxes on it|
|Grow the money in the account tax-free||Grow the money in the account tax free|
|Pay taxes when you withdraw the funds||No taxes when you withdraw the funds|
What if you leave the funds in your traditional retirement account?
Consider a situation where you have a traditional retirement account worth approximately $300,000. Assume the market goes up by an average of 6% per year over the next 5 years and your account goes up in value to $400,000. You will need to pay taxes when you withdraw the $400,000 from the account. Assume you are in a 33% income tax bracket. Do you think your tax bracket and/or the income tax rates in the future will be higher, lower, or the same as today? Most people would agree that tax rates will probably be higher – especially given the enormous US federal budget deficit. Even so, let’s assume your tax bracket in the future is the same as today, around 33% in our example. When you withdraw the $400,000, you will need to pay $132,000 in taxes (33%). If you leave the money in the account to be inherited by your heirs when you die, they will need to pay income taxes on the money when they take distributions, and they are required to take distributions over their life expectancy. They also might need to pay estate taxes on the funds, depending on the value of your estate.
Why Convert the Funds from a Traditional IRA into a Roth IRA?
In the example above, let’s assume you convert the $300,000 into a Roth IRA. In this case, you will not need to pay any taxes at all as you withdraw the funds when the account goes up in value to $400,000. However, you will need to pay taxes now on the $300,000 ($99,000 in taxes assuming a 33% tax bracket).
In this example, you would save at least $33,000 in taxes by paying the 33% tax now on the $300,000 account value instead of later on the $400,000 account value. Your savings will be even greater if tax brackets are higher in the future and/or if the retirement account goes up in value more than expected. If you don’t take the distributions yourself, the funds will be distributed income tax-free to your heirs. If the market goes down, and the account loses value after the conversion, you could simply change your mind, “re-characterize” the account, and then convert the funds again later at the lesser value. This would save even more money in the upfront taxes that would be due.
Where to get the money for the tax bill?
In our example, you would need to pay approximately $99,000 in taxes to make the strategy work. You could pay the taxes out of the retirement account itself, but that would almost defeat the purpose of the conversion.
Instead, it may be smarter to take advantage of the record low mortgage rates that are currently available. You could bump up the balance on your home mortgage, and use the extra funds to pay the taxes on the conversion:
|Pay Taxes Using Cash on Hand||Pay Taxes Using Mortgage|
|Opportunity Cost %||6%||–|
|Opportunity Cost $ (what you would have earned by keeping your $ invested)||$5,940||–|
|After-tax Mortgage Cost % (based on a 5% mortgage rate)||–||3.35%|
|After-tax Mortgage Cost $||–||$3,317|
|Savings||–||$2,623 / year|
It is always advisable to consult with licensed financial and tax professionals when evaluating strategies that impact your tax and financial situation. It is also advisable to consult with a Certified Mortgage Planning SpecialistTM(CMPS®) when navigating today’s turbulent mortgage and real estate marketplace. As a CMPS® professional, I am committed, qualified and equipped to help you evaluate your mortgage options! As always, I am here for you every step of the way.